RAMOS, Fabrício Menezes.
Peixes ornamentais do rio xingu: manutenção e reprodução do Acari zebra Hypancistrus zebra Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1991 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) em cativeiro. 2016. 98 f. Tese (Doutorado)
Universidade Federal do Pará, Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias e Desenvolvimento Rural, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Belém, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal.
Abstract: The Hypancistrus zebra is an endangered species, but remains illegally captured and sold in the Middle Xingu region, mainly due to lack of creating technology that enable its creation in captivity and reduce the exploitation of natural stocks. Thus, the main objective of this work is to generate maintenance protocols and reproduction of zebra pleco, Hypancistrus zebra in captivity. Therefore, we obtained 300 copies of acari zebra according to SISBIO authorization No. 38215-2 and ethics committee animal No 03.14.00.017.00.00. This study was divided into four chapters, the first being related to conduct an inventory of the species of the Xingu River to select the priority species for the development of farming technologies; Evaluate the acceptability of different food and shelter in maintaining zebra pleco maintained in the laboratory; To evaluate various conditions for inducing playback zebra pleco in tanks and; Evaluate feeding management for fry of F1 generation Hypancistrus zebra. Based on the array were chosen five species of the family Loricariidae (Hypancistrus zebra, Hypancistrus sp.2, Baryancistrus xanthelus, Scobinancistrus sp.3 and Ancistrus sp.4), one species to Potamotrygonidae (Potamotrygon leopoldii) and two species of cichlid (Creniciclha regani and Teleociclha spp.). With respect to the preference for shelters acari zebra time spent in shelters was higher in clay shelters (276 ± 51 day min-1) followed by the stone shelter (198 ± 96 day min-1), outside the shelter (134 ± 15 day min-1), and PVC under (70 ± 52 day min-1). The preference for food the sort order of preference of the food was higher for Artemia sp. followed by food fish, shrimp and mussels. But when the fish fed with Artemia sp. or mix food, they had higher final weight, final length and weight gain compared to single foods with shrimp and fish. Regarding the frequency and feed rate, there was no interaction between the rate and the supply frequency and the frequency 2:03 daily feeds and feed rate of 10% day-1 body weight promote better results of production performance. It was also observed that the best storage density is 2.00 g L-1 to provide the best specific growth rate. Regarding reproduction were observed five spawns from different couples, and 3 to 1 male and 2 females. The biggest male is the dominant
territorialist and have parental care. average position of 13.8 ± 6.72 eggs, diameter of 4.4 ± 0.12, volume 41.4 mm3 volume and calf 34.3 mm3. The outbreak is 7 days post fertilization (PF) and PF 17 days the yolk sac has been absorbed. The different values tested for electrical conductivity in the water and hormonal treatments were not enough to promote spawns in acari zebras. Performance figures in fingerlings acari zebra remained similar between the treatments. It follows therefore, that the zebra pleco is the kind of priority Xingu river in technology development. The use of ceramic refuges is the most suitable in Hypancistrus zebra. The zebra pleco should be cultivated at a density of 2 g L-1, and its power is not random, with preference for brine shrimp, which must be distributed in 10% day-1 body weight in 2 daily feedings. In addition to complementary food brine shrimp can be combined to provide similar performance. Captive breeding is however possible new techniques that facilitate the scheduling of reproduction should be evaluated. Furthermore, due to the short larval stage and with great reserve yolk sac, promote healthier fry and being resistant to feed frequency not directly influence on performance.